Lavender can be suitable integrated with apple as an intercrop. The freshly laid apple orchards take several years to come to fruiting. During this lean period of 6-7 years there are no direct returns from the land. An experiment laid in IIIM Farm at Bonera revealed that lavender can be intercropped with apple. There was no change in herbage, oil content and quality profile of lavender during first 3 years thus permits increased harvest per unit, better economic returns for the farming community.
Intercropping of lavender with apple
Quality Profile -
The typical constituents reported in pure Lavender oil are linalool (29-46%), linalyl acetate (36-51%), 1, 8 cineole (0.1-2.2%), β-carophyllene (2.5-7.6%), terpineol (2.7-6.9%), ocimenes (2.5-10.8%), Lavandulyl acetate (3.4-6.2%) (Lawrence, 1993). The oil sample from Kashmir was analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. Volatile compounds were identified by co-injection with reference samples. Kovat retention indices and comparison of mass spectra of authentic standards (Shawl et al; 2005). Results are shown in Table – 1. The main constituents of lavender oil from Kashmir are linalool (25.27%), linalyl acetate (44.98%), - terpineol (1.49%), borneol (2.7%), camphor (1.07%), lavandulyl acetate (3.4%), β-carophyllene (1.85%), carophyllene oxide (2.08%). These values are indicative of its European pharmacopoeia standards which seem to be more applicable for the evaluation of lavender oil because of the worldwide production to day.
It is well known that linalool and linalyl acetate content of Lavender oil is mostly used as the criterion of quality. It is quite evident that Kashmir lavender oil (linalool >25%, linalyl acetate > 44%) is of international standards. Lavender oil produced from Kashmir based on the technical knowhow of the institute is being sold both in domestic and international market. Natural lavender oil is also adultered. The presence of dihydro linalool and dihydro linalyl acetate in lavender oils proves adulteration. These constituents are not occurring in pure lavender oil.
Sensory evaluation shows that Lavender oil has typical herbal, floral fresh note. The top note having green, hay like fruity aspects and on dry out being sweet and slightly woody. The typical lavender note is responsible for creation of perfumes for men. The following constituents impart different odor characteristics to Lavender oil (Boelens, 1995).
• Fresh floral - linalyl acetate, lavandulol and its esters
• Herbaceous - monoterpenyl carbonyls
• Sweet, aromatic - benzenoid derivatives
• Warm, woody - santalene derivatives, sesquiterpene compounds
• Fruity fatty - butyl & hexyl esters
• Herbal earthy - 1-octenol & derivatives
• Herbal green - undecatriene and undecatetraene